Due to the vast and diverse landscape covering Australia, the climate varies dramatically in different parts of the country.
Australian Capital Territory (ACT)
ACT has a dry, continental climate, and experiences four distinct seasons due to its elevation and distance from the coast.
Summer (December – February) tends to be warm and hot, and January is considered to be the hottest month, with an average daily high of 27 degrees Celsius during the day, and a low of 13 degrees Celsius at night.
Winter (June – August) is cold with the occasional frost and fog, resulting in the closure of the airports from time to time. July is the coldest month, with average temperatures of 10-11 degrees during the day and 0-2 degrees at night.
Rainfall is frequent and unreliable, with cycles of drought and flooding; large storage reservoirs are needed to ensure the proper drainage of excessive storm water. The annual recorded rainfall is 25 inches.
New South Wales (NSW)
New South Wales has a temperate, humid climate, accompanied by several days of sunshine a year. The city experiences more blue skies during winter than in summer. Smog is quite common on hotter days during the summer. Sydney does not experience snowfall, but regional parts of NSW experience snowfall, including the Blue Mountains, Orange, and the Upper Hunter region.
Summer (December – February): The average temperature in summer is between 18.6 – 25.8 degrees Celsius, with a humidity level of around 65%. Ocean water temperatures during summer ranges between 22-24 degrees Celsius.
Autumn (March – May): is probably the mildest period in Sydney, with low levels of humidity. Temperatures range between 14.6- 22.2 degrees Celsius.
Winter (June – August): During winter, the temperature averages between 8.8 – 17 degrees Celsius. The highest level of rainfall is during June, while July is the coolest month of the year.
Spring (September – November): The average temperatures in Spring is between 11-23 degrees Celsius, with mild levels of humidity.
Northern Territory (NT)
The Northern Territory has two distinct climate zones; the wet season (October – April) and the dry season (May – September). The temperature remains approximately around 30 degrees Celsius for most of the year. However, certain parts of the Northern Territory experience monsoon weather, including hurricanes and typhoons.
During the dry season, almost every day is warm and sunny with a humidity level of 30%. May and September months have mild rainfall, and June and July are the coolest months; the weather can drop as low as 14 degrees Celsius.
The wet season brings monsoon rains and tropical cyclones, with maximum rainfall during December – March, accompanied by frequent thunderstorms.
Queensland experiences a subtropical climate, where most of the year is warm and humid, with around 2,800 hours of annual sunshine. Most rainfall occurs during the summertime, and can be accompanied by thunderstorms, including torrential rain. Winter is generally dry, with clear, blue skies.
Brisbane, Queensland is the ideal city for those who enjoy the outdoors. The city has a subtropical oceanic climate, with an average of 8 hours of sunshine per day. Due to its proximity to the Pacific and Coral seas, the overall temperatures are generally mild, neither too hot nor too cold.
Winter (June- August): is usually mild and generally dry. Average temperatures range between 10-22 degrees Celsius.
Spring (September – November): is usually warmer, and temperatures range between 16-26 degrees Celsius.
Summer (December – March): The average summer temperatures are between 21-30 degrees Celsius. Due to the ocean currents, Brisbane does not experience extremely hot weather in summer like other Australian cities.
Autumn (April – May): is quite warm and includes a fair bit of rain. The average Autumn temperatures are 16-26 degrees Celsius, but nights can get a bit chilly.
Adelaide experiences a Mediterranean climate, with four distinct seasons. Summers are generally hot and long, and winters are cool and mild; without snowfall. Adelaide gets over 2,500 hours of sunshine per year, and lower humidity compared to other Australian cities.
Summer (December – February): average temperatures range from 15-29 degrees Celsius. Rainfall is infrequent in summer, and very light. During summer, the sea water temperatures range between 19-21 degrees Celsius, making it ideal for swimming and other water sports.
Autumn (March – May): temperatures range from 12 – 23 degrees Celsius, with very little rainfall.
Winter (June – August): temperatures range from 7-16 degrees Celsius. Frost is uncommon, but occasionally occurs in the Adelaide Hills. Some winter days are accompanied by wind chills, and make the weather seem cooler than it is.
Spring (September – November): Temperatures range from 11-22 degrees Celsius; rainfall is low, but nights become cooler.
Tasmania has a cool and temperate climate, with four distinct seasons, and shares a similar climate to the UK, New Zealand, and Canada. In Tasmania, residents experience the harshest and coldest conditions during winter, accompanied by hail and snow. The weather in Tasmania is quite unpredictable, so you should always be prepared, and carry an umbrella and a raincoat/jacket for added measure.
Spring (September - November): temperatures range between 7.9 – 16.9 degrees Celsius.
Summer (December – February): temperatures range between 11-21 degrees Celsius. The average ocean temperatures during this time ranges between 15-16 degrees Celsius.
Autumn (March – May): average temperatures are between 8.9 – 17.3 degrees Celsius.
Winter (June – August): daytime temperatures are between 5-12.3 degrees Celsius, while night-time temperatures can drop as low as 0 degrees Celsius.
The Victorian climate is known to be extremely volatile and unpredictable, with temperatures fluctuating from extremely hot, to extremely cold. In general, the Victorian climate can be described as quite pleasant in Spring, warm in Summer, mild during Autumn, and crisp and cold in Winter.
Summer (December – February): in Victoria is known for its extreme heat, especially during the months of January and February, with highs of 35-42 degrees, and lows of 25 degrees.
Winter is extremely cold, accompanied by harsh winds, and the occasional hail and snow in regional and mountainous areas of the state. Average temperatures in Victoria during Winter (June – August) is between 0 Degrees to 12 degrees Celsius.
Autumn (March – May) and Spring (September – November) has milder weather, with averages of 10-18 degrees. October is known as the “wettest” month in Victoria, averaging an annual rainfall of 600mm.
Western Australia (WA)
Western Australia has a Mediterranean climate, and on average experiences about eight hours of sunshine per day. It is the sunniest Australian city, with over 135 clear days a year. Summers are usually hot and dry, with the occasional rain and thunderstorms. Winters are generally cool and wet.
The hottest month is usually February, and July and August are the coolest months. Most of the city's rainfall occurs between May and September, with an average annual rainfall of 880mm. Swimming in the ocean is mostly acceptable from January – May, when the water temperatures are around 22-23 degrees Celsius.
Summer (December – February): is usually devoid of rain, with the occasional thunderstorms. It is hot and sunny during with day, and cool at night. The average temperatures in summer ranges from 18-40 degrees Celsius.
Autumn (March – May): Average temperatures are between 12 – 21 degrees Celsius and the weather is quite pleasant.
Winter (June – August): is mild and wet. On the rare occasion, the temperature drops below zero degrees, accompanied with the formation of frost. Light snowfalls have also been recorded in the outer suburbs of Perth, like Perth Hills, Kalamunda, Roleystone, and Mundaring. Average temperatures in Winter are between 9-18 degrees Celsius.
Spring (September – November): average temperatures are between 12-30 degrees Celsius. The weather during this period is mild and unstable, with chances of wind and rain.